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Communications Across Cultures Conference

On Friday we attended the annual Communications Across Cultures Conference in the Isaac Newton Building where we enjoyed presentations from staff and students from across the college on the topic of international study, as well as a general knowledge quiz. It was a fantastic event and we got plenty of photos throughout the day.

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Sophie Damms Criminology Alumni Case Study Video

Sophie graduated from the University of Lincoln in 2016 with a degree in Criminology. Since then she has been working in the prison service and is now a Prison Officer.

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Amy Reddish Criminology Alumni Case Study Video

Amy graduated from the University of Lincoln in 2006 with a Criminology degree and now works as a Supervisory Officer at HMS Morton mentoring new officers.

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Ian Smith Criminology Alumni Case Study Video

Meet Ian Smith, one of our Criminology Alumni who has worked in prisons and secure children’s homes across Lincolnshire before founding his own business, Vision Drive.

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Getting Selected: Free Public Event to Examine the Changing Role of Women in Parliament

In 1918, following the passing of the Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act women were allowed to stand for Parliament for the first time. In 1921 the Lincolnshire constituency of Louth elected Margaret Wintringham as their MP, and she was the second woman ever in the House of Commons.

‘Getting Selected’ will be a lively roundtable discussion chaired by Professor Krista Cowman from the University of Lincoln, and will consider how the process of being selected as Parliamentary candidate has changed since Margaret Wintringham was elected in the 1920s. Participants will include Lesley Abdela, co-founder of The 300 Group, an all-party campaign for women in parliament, politics and public life; Sarah Childs, Professor of Politics and Gender at Birkbeck, University of London; playwright Hannah Davies; local MP and former City Councillor Karen Lee; Dolly Theis from the 50:50 Parliament and #AskHerToStand campaign; and Nicola Waterworth from The Parliament Project, which empowers women to run for political office.

MP for Lincoln Karen Lee said “Next year marks 100 years of the Acts of Parliament which gave women the vote and allowed them to stand as MPs. I am delighted to take part in this event, which will celebrate these key milestones and examine their impact on our democracy past and present.”

To book your free place for this event, visit

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Lincoln Law’s Duncan French and Graham Melling Visit China


Professor Duncan French, Head of Lincoln Law School and Dr Graham Melling, Director of LLM Programmes, have recently returned from Guangzhou, southern China on a visit to a number of partner institutions. During their stay they visited the law schools of South China Normal University (SCNU) and South China University of Technology (SCUT). As well as meeting academics and students to talk about opportunities to study at Lincoln, both Professor French and Dr Melling took a range of classes on aspects of international law. Topics included the unilateral declaration of independence of Catalonia, the US withdrawal from the 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change, and the legal implications of the Sustainable Development Goals.

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Health and Social Care Meet the Graduates

We had a brilliant time meeting some of our Health and Social Care alumni. It was incredible to hear about all of the things they have been doing since graduation, from running successful business enterprises to exciting research projects. We are really proud of what each has achieved and we look forward to finding out what they do next.

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LALT Showcase: Education in a Digital Age

Staff and students are invited to attend the first LALT Showcase: Education in a Digital Age on Tuesday 7th November.

Academic and professional services colleagues from across the University will provide examples of innovative digital practice, including hands-on IT support, practical digital demonstrations, workshops from University software suppliers such as Panopto, Turnitin, and Talis, and an opportunity to experience cutting edge virtual reality (VR) technologies.

The Showcase is open to all on a drop-in basis, however workshop spaces are limited due to space restrictions and so staff are encouraged to book ahead.  For the full agenda and to book onto workshops please visit:

The Showcase takes place in the Engine Shed from 10am to 4.30pm. Refreshments will be available throughout the day.

Follow @UoL_LALT and #DigiEd17 for event updates.

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Lincoln Law investigates if all ISIS members are lawful targets for lethal force


University of Lincoln Law lecturer, Max Brookman-Byrne questions whether the targeting of ISIS members by lethal force is lawful.

The recent deaths of Sally Jones, a member of Islamic State, and her 12-year-old son serve as a reminder that the law on the targeting of militants by armed drones is still fraught with ambiguity stemming from the asymmetrical nature of modern global conflict.

In situations where there is an armed conflict, a particular set of international laws apply known as International Humanitarian Law (IHL). These rules give states greater scope to use lethal force, which ordinarily would be highly constrained. During armed conflicts, IHL allows members of a state’s armed forces — ie recognised armed forces attached to the country’s leadership — to be targeted at any time. There are restrictions in place that prevent medical or religious personnel from being targeted.

This same categorical approach is not permitted when it comes to members of non-state armed groups. As they are not members of a state’s armed forces, the members of these groups are viewed as civilians in law. Within IHL, civilians are protected against attack and therefore may not be targeted unless they directly participate in hostilities.

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has interpreted “direct participation in hostilities” to mean that members of non-state armed groups will lose their protection as civilians only if they carry out a “continuous combat function”. Some have argued that the ICRC approach is too restrictive, placing dangerous individuals outside the list of legitimate targets. The United States, for instance, argues that formal membership of a non-state armed group such as Isis, even in a non-combat role, should be sufficient reasoning for someone to forfeit their civilian protection. Others have argued that the ICRC approach is too broad and that an individual should be targeted only if they are carrying out a specific hostile act, not just by virtue of their membership.

Considering the complexities of this debate, ultimately the ICRC’s position can be seen to occupy a middle ground between these two perspectives, and is therefore a useful tool for analysis.

The question remains, however, what is considered to be a participation in hostilities? Can it be defined as the participation in a specific hostile act, carrying out a continuous combat function or can it be interpreted much more broadly, to include the participation in propaganda?

The rise of social media has added another dimension to modern conflict. For militant groups such as Isis social media is a widely utilised vehicle of recruitment and propaganda, used to encourage individuals to travel to war zones, training camps or to carry out attacks on the home soil of perceived enemies.

While it is clear that this is neither a responsible, nor ethical activity for a person to participate in, and is also likely to be criminal under domestic law, the question must be raised — does the direct involvement in the creation or distribution of propaganda render someone a lawful target for lethal force?

The interpretation of the ICRC specifically argues that recruitment and propaganda activities do not equate to a continuous combat function, nor to direct participation in hostilities, which would suggest not.

IHL is designed to limit hostilities, not enable them. It should not be treated as a set of rules giving broad powers to states to target individuals, but as a body of law to protect those affected by conflict. This is particularly so in terms of conflicts between a state and a non-state armed group, in which there is more scope for civilians to become affected by, and embroiled in, conflict.

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